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How Violence Limits Economic Activity

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NPR

Between 1870 and 1940 — a time period that included the Second Industrial Revolution and the outbreak of Jim Crow laws — only 726 patents were filed by African-Americans. Economist Lisa Cook calculated that number would have much higher, were it not for racial discrimination and violence against African-Americans.

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Cardiff Garcia is a co-host of NPR's The Indicator from Planet Money podcast, along with Stacey Vanek Smith. He joined NPR in November 2017.